Dioxins and Furans

The dioxin and furan families of chemicals are among the most studied chemicals to which humans are routinely exposed. Virtually every person in the planet has measurable concentrations of both chemical families in their blood. Dioxins mostly exist as by-products of industrial processes, such as bleaching paper pulp, waste incineration, metal smelting and refining, and in certain manufacturing processes. However, the primary source of dioxins and furans has been as combustion byproducts from all sources, including wildfires, volcanos, incinerators, smelting plants and chemical processors.

Our staff has extensive experience studying the health effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the 156 related chemicals in the environment and in occupationally exposed workers.  Our work with respect to determining acceptable concentrations in soil has been cited worldwide for almost 30 years.

Key Projects

  • Assessed the hazard to local citizens of dioxin-contaminated sediments in San Jacinto Bay. We were retained to evaluate a fairly controversial site in the Houston ship channel to determine whether fish and other aquatic life contained a sufficient concentration of dioxins, furans and PCBs to pose a significant health hazard to local residents who ate these foods. (2017-2020).
  • Assessed claims that exposure to dioxin, at nearly any concentration, increased the risk of diabetes. We were retained to examine a group of patients who claimed exposure to dioxin and an increased incidence of diabetes. This claim had been evaluated by the NAS and found to be without merit, but some did not find this convincing. We conducted a different analysis and found that reverse causation explained the results. (Kerger, B.D., P.K. Scott, M. Pavuk, M. Gough, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2012. Re-analysis of Ranch Hand study supports reverse causation hypothesis between dioxin and diabetes. Crit Rev Tox. 42(8):669-87.).
  • Evaluated the presence of dioxins, furans, PCBs and flame retardants in shrimp from developing countries. In conjunction with a famous analytical laboratory, ChemRisk conducted a study of nearly 30 different sources of shrimp to the U.S. food market which were both farm-raised and natural. This was the first comparative assessment of its type involving shrimp from 12 countries. The results were reported at 3 national scientific meetings and in two journal articles (2008-2011). This work was performed as a public service by ChemRisk.
  • Assessed the hazards posed by dioxin in poultry contaminated with dioxins in Germany. In January 2011, provided pro bono advice to a regulatory agency who was trying to assess the human health hazard associated with having fed dioxin-tainted oils (with feed) to chickens which then had a “higher than normal” concentration of dioxins and furans.
  • Provided assistance to patent lawyers regarding protection of a patent on a process for removing PBDE flame retardants from pharmaceutical drugs. One of the new blockbuster drugs now on the market is based on concentrating oils from fish caught in Scandinavian countries that are known to contain considerable concentrations of dioxins, furans, PCBs and PBDEs. In the summer of 2010, ChemRisk assisted in helping them understand the possible hazards and evaluated their patent for removing these chemicals.
  • A study of the exposure of citizens to historical aerial emissions of dioxins and furans from a wire cable recycler/producer. During 2006 and 2007, conducted a major study of the blood concentrations of dioxins/furans in workers and some community members and compared the results against NHANES data. The data may be submitted to a journal for publication.
  • A complex pharmacokinetic study of furan elimination from children exposed to excessive dioxin concentrations due to contaminated soil. Over the years, a number of models have been proposed to predict the past and future blood levels of dioxin/furans in children due to ingestion of breast milk and other foods. Based on data collected from various studies conducted around the globe, a new model was built and validated. The results were published in a journal in 2008.
  • A pharmacokinetic analysis of dioxin and furan elimination in children. Between 2003 and 2006, conducted an extensive analysis of published and unpublished data on the biologic half-life of these persistent chemicals in young children and adolescents. In collaboration with researchers involved in the Seveso incident in Italy, a pharmacokinetic model was developed. Our resulting analyses could impact views about the hazard to children from eating dioxin-contaminated soil. The analysis appeared in press in 2008.
  • State of art research regarding the bioavailability of dioxin/furans in soil. Building upon 20 years of research on bioavailability, designed and executed a study to understand the various parameters that influence the release of these chemicals. Work was conducted in 2005-2007, and was submitted for publication.
  • Assessment of the possible dioxin contribution to diet from ingesting wild and farm-raised catfish. Questions have been raised about regional differences in the blood concentrations of dioxins in humans. In order to assess whether ingesting catfish might produce a typical fingerprint pattern and a typical contribution to diet, in 2006, farm and wild catfish were captured and assayed. The results will be submitted to a journal for publication. This work was funded by ChemRisk.
  • Asbestos, dioxin, and other materials in dust from the World Trade Center (New York). In 2004-2005, conducted an analysis of how to determine whether WTC dust had entered a building and assessed the possible associated health risks (at the former 90 Church Street site). The fingerprinting analysis was published in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • Assessment of PAHs in creosote-treated wood (Louisiana). In 2004, conducted an exposure and risk assessment of persons who handled treated wood, as well as an assessment of the dioxins released from this wood when burned in fireplaces.
  • Assessment of dioxin emissions from oil refineries (California). From 1995-2001, evaluated data regarding the contribution of refinery dioxin emissions in air and water to the environment. Provided testimony to several government agencies on this issue.
  • Assessment of dioxin in soils near a former hazardous waste incinerator (Midland, MI). In 2001, retained by Dow Chemical Company to characterize the possible human health hazards posed by the historical deposition of dioxins and furans into soils downwind of their incinerator. The soil concentrations were in the range of 50-400 ppt toxic equivalents (TEQ).
  • Assessment of dioxin and furans in soils and sediments (Midland, Michigan). In 2001-2005, conducted a comprehensive risk assessment of dioxins surrounding a former incinerator at the Dow facility in Midland. In addition, provided advice on how to assess the human and ecological hazards associated with the presence of these chemicals in flood plains downstream of the facility.
  • Risk assessment of emissions from a waste incinerator (Louisiana). In 1998-1999, conducted a risk assessment of airborne emissions released from the largest existing waste incinerator. Determined that improved emission controls were necessary to limit potential dioxin exposures to farmers living near the incinerator and to prevent intake by cattle. The design of the air pollution control devices was modified, and a permit was then issued so that it could operate. For other reasons, the new facility never went into production.
  • Assessment of dioxin emissions from a combustor (Columbus, OH). In 1997-1998, was retained by plaintiffs to evaluate the legitimacy of a claim that airborne emissions of dioxins from a combustor may have raised dioxin levels in blood in citizens. The data indicated that the uptake was negligible, which was not surprising, since the amount of farmland near the combustor was negligible.
  • Assessment of hazards posed by combustion products from commercial fires (California). In 1997-1998, evaluated the possible public health hazards associated with the emission and transport of combustion products produced during a fire involving a chemical plant. Assessed hazards due to carbon dioxide, dioxins, PAHs, soot, and fine particles.
  • Ecotoxicology assessment of contaminated sediments in the Newark Bay watershed (Passaic River, NJ). In 1991-1997, directed a project involving a complete assessment of the human, aquatic, and avian hazards posed by dioxin, PCBs, and other long-lived chemicals in sediments.
  • Assessment of dioxin in soil (California). In 1995-1996, served as project manager of risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs) from a combustor source in soil, sediment, and air. Approach evaluated tetra- through hepta-CDD/F separately from octa-CDD/F to allow use of congener-specific disposition and toxicity data.
  • Exposure assessment of herbicide risks (California). During 1994-1995, developed plausible estimates of dioxin uptake resulting from specific work activities. Designed and conducted experiments to quantitate exposure to aerosols for a roadside weed abatement operator resulting from blowback. Developed dermal uptake models that were integrated with PBPK models to estimate total dioxin uptake and blood concentrations of dioxin.
  • Risk assessment and research of Pentachlorophenol/dioxin (Georgia). In the mid-1990s, managed a project that delineated the state of scientific knowledge from 1950 to present regarding the known environmental fate and transport characteristics of pentachlorophenol products. Provided a summary and analysis of site-characterization data, and a screening-level risk assessment for two facilities seeking cost recovery.
  • Assessment of dioxin emissions from oil refineries (Northern California). In 1995, assembled available air and water emissions from refineries and assessed the hazard to humans and wildlife. Conducted the first comprehensive study of dioxin runoff to the San Francisco Bay resulting from airborne deposition from all possible sources. The work was presented at the International Dioxin Conference and was published in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • Assessment of dioxin emissions from the world’s largest incinerator (Michigan). In the mid-1990s, served as an expert in determining the possible health risks associated with aerial emissions from the City of Detroit’s municipal waste incinerators, at the request of former Mayor Coleman Young. The issue was of considerable interest to Canada, which believed that the majority of the emissions were being deposited onto Canadian soils.
  • Assessment of dioxin-contaminated sediment in Passaic River (New Jersey). From 1991-1995, served as the principal-in-charge and key interface to USEPA on a project involving dioxin-contaminated sediment in New Jersey. Developed scoping documents and work plans for sediment sampling on at least six different occasions. Helped write the work plan for the remedial investigation, which required four years to implement.
  • Chemical fingerprinting of sediments (New Jersey). From 1990-1994, used polytropic vector analysis and multivariate analysis (fingerprinting) to understand dioxin contamination of river sediments. Six papers on our work were published in the peer-reviewed literature.
  • Risk assessment of chloroform, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dioxin (Washington). In 1993, conducted risk assessment of possible airborne chemical emissions during the dredging and remediation of a wastewater treatment facility. More than thirty expert reports and datasets provided by the plaintiffs’ experts were analyzed. The chemicals of interest were chlorinated dioxins and furans, chloroform, methylene chloride, and other chlorinated compounds, H2S and mercaptans, mustard gas, oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, nitrosamines, and sulfuric acid mist or fog. Testified in state court in 1994.
  • Re-Opening Records of Decision (ROD) on Dioxin Contaminated Soils. In the winter of 2012, we were retained by one of our historical clients to evaluate claims by EPA that a ROD should be revisited due to the change in dioxin in soil clean-up guidelines. We conducted the original assessment in 1990. The assessment was still ongoing in late 2014.
  • Assessment of dioxin emissions from an industrial oil-fired boiler (Portland, ME). In early 1990s, served as a principal reviewer for an assessment that predicted the dioxin concentration in local crops and grazing stock near an oil-fired boiler.
  • Assessment of wood treatment chemicals in soils and sediments (North Carolina). In the early 1990s, examined contaminant migration and potential human health risks to community members from a former wood treatment facility contaminated with creosote, PAHs, pentachlorophenol, and dioxin compounds. Evaluated whether alleged chemical releases could have adversely affected residents.
  • Assessment of dioxin-contaminated site (Arkansas). In 1991 and 1992, identified acceptable cleanup levels for soil at an industrial site known as the Vertac site, which had housed a former manufacturer of 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (Silvex).
  • Bioaccessibility research was conducted on dioxin-contaminated soils and clean-up levels were derived. Original lab work was conducted to derive the oral bioaccessibility. A Monte Carlo-based risk assessment was conducted. We participated in community and regulatory meetings to explain the significance of our studies. A similar project may be conducted in New Zealand for Dow Chemical (also involving dioxins in soil).
  • Assessment of incinerator emissions (Martinez, CA). From 1988-1991, managed and prepared a multi-pathway assessment of the health risks associated with emissions of particulates and vapors from a combustor. The State of California had previously determined that the dioxin risks were significant, and that the client would have to warn the surrounding communities. ChemRisk developed one of the nation’s first multi-pathway exposure analyses, accounting for ingestion of mother’s milk, vegetables, and crops, as well as for indirect exposure from grazing animals (meat and dairy products).
  • Assessment of Love Canal (New York). In 1989, evaluated more than ten years of work by numerous groups, and served as an expert witness in the personal injury litigation involving exposure to dioxin and volatile organic compounds in Love Canal resident homes.
  • Proposed ambient water quality criteria for 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Texas, Louisiana, and Georgia). During the late 1980s, assisted in preparing the assessment that served as a scientific basis for setting dioxin emission standards for pulp and paper mills on waterways in the three above-mentioned states. These limits were later accepted by regulatory agencies and courts in ten other states.
  • Assessment of TCDD from incinerator (Times Beach, Missouri). In 1986-1988, evaluated hazards from the aerial emissions associated with combusting dioxin-contaminated soils. Work was conducted for USEPA, which had hoped to install a temporary incinerator at Times Beach. In 1990, published a peer-reviewed paper describing the analyses.
  • Evaluation of Times Beach (Missouri). From 1984-1987, directed the scientific research that evaluated the possible health risks associated with exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in soil. Managed a group of three full-time PhD research toxicologists and a number of contract labs conducting work involving exposure assessment and low-dose extrapolation analyses. Directed the original research involving a) dermal bioavailability of dioxin in soil; b) oral bioavailability of dioxin in soil; c) ingestion rates of soil by children (via Dr. Calabrese at the University of Massachusetts); d) vapor pressure measurements of dioxin; e) soil erosion wind models; f) low dose model sensitivity analyses (with Sielken); and g) dermal uptake via human skin in vitro. This resulted in eight peer-reviewed publications. Following three years of effort, in 1987, USEPA decided that our analyses had merit, and chose to recommend that the risk-specific dose (RSD) for the 1 in 1,000,000 cancer risk for dioxin be changed from 6 fg/kg-day to 100 fg/kg-day (the first USEPA reassessment). Our work on soil ingestion and our risk assessment methodology was used in decision-making for dozens of sites contaminated with dioxin in the 1980s and 1990s. At least ten peer-reviewed papers describing the work were published.
  • Dioxins in beef: Even though it was suspected that grazing animals might be the source of the intake of most dioxins found in the blood of Americans in the 1960s to the 1980s, we were the first to prove the quantitative relationship (Fries, G.F. and D.J. Paustenbach. 1990. Evaluation of potential transmission of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-contaminated incinerator emissions to humans via foods. J Toxicol Environ Health. 29:1-43). Prior to our work, it had been advocated by several other consulting groups that the amount of dioxins in foods was trivial and that they did not understand how Americans had developed relatively high concentrations of dioxins/furans in their adipose and blood. They suspected it might be due to inhalation or drinking water or some unknown source. Ultimately it was shown that most of the dioxins in humans was due to particulate emissions from combustors (because the particles landed on vegetation which was ingested by grazing cows and sheep).

Publications

  • Paustenbach, D.J. and B.D. Kerger. 2013. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: Estimating residential soil and house dust exposures to young children. Chemosphere. 91(2):200-204.
  • Kerger, B.D., P.K. Scott, M. Pavuk, M. Gough, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2012. Re-analysis of Ranch Hand study supports reverse causation hypothesis between dioxin and diabetes. Crit Rev Tox. 42(8):669-87.
  • Scott, L.L.F., D.F. Staskal, E.S. Williams, W.J. Luksemburg, J.D. Urban, L.M. Nguyen, L.C. Haws, L.S. Birnbaum, D.J. Paustenbach, and M.A. Harris. 2009. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in southern Mississippi catfish and estimation of potential health risks. Chemosphere. 74(7):1002-10.
  • Scott, L.L.F., K.M. Unice, P. Scott, L.M. Nguyen, L.C. Haws, M. Harris, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2008. Addendum to: Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 18:524-532.
  • Kerger, B. D., H.W. Leung, P.K. Scott, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2007. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Chemosphere. 67:S272-8.
  • Ferriby, L.L., J.S. Knutsen, M. Harris, K.M. Unice, P. Scott, P. Nony, L.C. Haws, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2007. Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of United States Population. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 17(4):358-71.
  • Kerger, B.D., H.W. Leung, P. Scott, D.J. Paustenbach, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., P. M. Gerthoux, and P. Mocarelli. 2006. Age- and concentration-dependent elimination of half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Seveso children. Environ Health Perspec. 114(10):1596-602.
  • Leung, H.W., B.D. Kerger, D.J. Paustenbach. 2006. Elimination half-lives of selected polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in breast-fed human infants. J Toxicol Environ Health. 69(6):437-43.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., K. Fehling, P. Scott, M. Harris and B.D. Kerger. 2006. Identifying soil cleanup criteria for dioxins in urban residential soils: How have 20 years of research and risk assessment experience affected the analysis? J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 9(2):87-145.
  • Ruby, M., S. Casteel, T. Evans, K. Fehling, D.J. Paustenbach, R. Budinsky, J. Giesy, L. Aylward, and B. Landenberger. 2004. Background concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs in Sprague-Dawley rats and juvenile swine. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 67(11):845–50.
  • Greene, J., S. Hays, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2003. Basis for a proposed reference dose (RfD) for dioxin of 1−10 pg/kg-day: a weight of evidence evaluation of the human and animal studies. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 6(2):115-59.
  • Ruby, M.V., K.A. Fehling, D.J. Paustenbach, B.D. Landenberger, and M.P. Holsapple. 2002. Oral bioaccessibility of dioxins/furans at low concentrations (50-350 ppt TEQ) in soil. Environ Sci Technol. 36(22):4905-11.
  • Paustenbach, D.J. 2002. The USEPA science advisory board evaluation of the USEPA (2001) dioxin reassessment. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 36(2):211-9.
  • Fries, G. F., D.J. Paustenbach, and W.J. Luksemburg. 2002. Complete mass balance of dietary polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in dairy cattle and characterization of the apparent synthesis of hepta- and octachlorodioxins. J Agric Food Chem. 50(15):4226-31.
  • Fries, G.F., D.J. Paustenbach, D.B. Mathur, and W.J. Luksemburg. 1999. A congener specific evaluation of transfer of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to milk cows following ingestion of pentachlorophenol-treated wood. Environ Sci Tech. 33(8):1165-70.
  • Wenning, R.J., D.B. Mathur, D.J. Paustenbach, M.J. Stephenson, S. Folwarkow, and W.J. Luksemburg. 1999. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in stormwater outfalls adjacent to urban areas and petroleum refineries in San Francisco Bay, California. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 37(3):290-302.
  • Aylward, L.L., S. Hays, N.J. Karch, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1996. Relative susceptibility of animals and humans to the cancer hazard posed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) using internal measures of dose. Environ Sci Technol. 30(12):3534-43.
  • Paustenbach, D.J. and B.E. Kerger. 1994. What’s new with dioxin? Sonreel. 25(5):8-9.
  • Ehrlich, R., R.J. Wenning, G.W. Johnson, S.H. Su, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1994. A mixing model for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey using polytopic vector analysis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 27:486-500.
  • Michaud, J.M., S.L. Huntley, R.A. Sherer, M.N. Gray, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1994. PCB and dioxin re-entry criteria for building surfaces and air. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 4(2):197-227.
  • Wenning, R.J., M.A. Harris, B. Finley, D.J. Paustenbach, and H. Bedbury. 1993. Application of pattern recognition techniques to evaluate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran distributions in surficial sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 25(1):103-25.
  • Wenning, R.J., M.A. Harris, D.J. Paustenbach, H. Bedbury. 1993. Principal components analysis of potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in surficial sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24:271-289.
  • Wenning, R., D.J. Paustenbach, G. Johnson, R. Ehrlich, M. Harris, and H. Bedbury. 1993. Chemometric analysis of potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surficial sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey. Chemosphere. 27:55-64.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., R.J. Wenning, and V. Lau. 1992. A Monte Carlo analysis of exposures and cancer risks form 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil at residential and industrial sites. In: Proc. 12th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxin and Related Compounds. 10:339-342.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., R.J. Wenning, V. Lau, N.W. Harrington, D.K. Rennix, and A.H. Parsons. 1992. Recent developments on the hazards posed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil: implications for setting risk-based cleanup levels at residential and industrial sites. J Toxicol Environ Health. 36(2):103-49.
  • Wenning, R.J., M.A. Harris, M.J. Ungs, D.J. Paustenbach, and H. Bedbury. 1992. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in surficial sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey, and other industrialized waterways. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 22:397-413.
  • Wenning, R.J., M.A. Harris, D.J. Paustenbach, and H. Bedbury. 1992. Potential sources of 1,2,8,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the aquatic environment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 23(2):133-46.
  • Wenning, R.J., M.A. Harris, M.J. Ungs, D.J. Paustenbach, and H. Bedbury. 1992. Chemometric comparisons of PCDD and PCDF residues in surficial sediments from Newark Bay and other environmental sources. In: Proc. Twelfth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxin and Related Compounds. 8:189-192.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., B.L. Finley, V. Lau, M. Ungs, and T.T. Sarlos. 1991. An evaluation of the inhalation hazard posed by dioxin-contaminated soils. J Air Waste Manage Assoc. 41:1334-40.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., T.T. Sarlos, V. Lau, B.L. Finley, D.A. Jeffrey, and M.J. Ungs. 1991. The potential inhalation hazard posed by dioxin contaminated soil. Chemosphere. 23:1719-29.
  • Finley, B., R.J. Wenning, M.J. Ungs, S. Huntley, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1990. PCDDs and PCDFs in surficial sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay. pp. 409-4. In: Proc. Tenth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxin and Related Compounds. Bayreuth, Germany.
  • Fries, G.F. and D.J. Paustenbach. 1990. Evaluation of potential transmission of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-contaminated incinerator emissions to humans via foods. J Toxicol Environ Health. 29:1-43.
  • Keenan, R.E., R.J. Wenning, A.H. Parsons, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1990. A re-evaluation of the tumor histopathology of Kociba et al. (1978) using 1990 criteria: Implications for the risk assessment of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using the linearized multistage model. pp. 549-54. In: Proc. Tenth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxin and Related Compounds.
  • Keenan, R.E., A.H. Parsons, R.J. Wenning, E.S. Ebert, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1990. Dioxin risk assessment for the Columbia River. pp. 541-48. In: Proc. Tenth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds. Bayreuth, Germany.
  • Keenan, R.E., A.H. Parsons, E.S. Ebert, R.J. Wenning, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1990. Setting rational health-based water quality standards for dioxin-Risk assessment for the Columbia River. pp. 801-12. In: Proc. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). Washington, DC.
  • Layard, M., D.J. Paustenbach, R.J. Wenning, and R.E. Keenan. 1990. Risk assessment of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using a biologically-based cancer model: A re-evaluation of the Kociba et al. (1978) bioassay. pp.561-6. In: Proc. Tenth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds. Bayreuth, Germany.
  • Leung, H.W., D.J. Paustenbach, F.J. Murray, and M.E. Anderson. 1990. A physiological pharmacokinetics description of the tissue distribution and enzyme inducing properties of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 103:399-410.
  • Leung, H.W., A.P. Poland, D.J. Paustenbach, F.S. Murray, and M.E. Andersen. 1990. Pharmacokinetics of [125I]-2-lodo-3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in mice: analysis with a physiological modeling approach. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 103:411-9.
  • Leung, H.W., D.J. Paustenbach and M.E. Andersen. 1989. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetics model for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Chemosphere. 18:659-64.
  • Leung, H.W., F.J. Murray, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1989. Documentation for an occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Chemosphere. 18(1-6):1115-22.
  • Leung, H.W., F.J. Murray, and D.J. Paustenbach. 1988. A proposed occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 49:466-74.
  • Leung, H.W., R.H. Ku, D.J. Paustenbach, and M.E. Andersen. 1988. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetics model of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Toxicol Lett. 42:15-28.
  • Paustenbach, D.J. and F.J. Murray. 1986. A critical examination of assessments of health risks associated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) in soil. Chemosphere. 15:1867-74.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., H.P. Shu, and F.J. Murray. 1986. A critical examination of assumptions used in risk assessments of dioxin contaminated soil. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 6:284-307.

 

Presentations 

  • Haws, L.C., P.K. Scott, K.M. Unice, M. Gough, M.A. Harris, D.S. Staskal, J. Paustenbach and M. Pavuk. Are dioxin body burdens surrogates for other risk factors in associations between dioxin and diabetes? Abstract# O-071. Presented at the 26th International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and POPs, August 21-25, 2006. Oslo, Norway
  • Leung, H., B.D. Kerger, P. Scott, D.J. Paustenbach. An Integrated Toxicokinetic Model for Estimating Childhood Body Burdens of Dioxins Based on Various Studies. Abstract # 561 Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s 45th Annual Meeting, March 5-9, 2006. San Diego, CA.

 

Abstracts

  • Paustenbach, D.J. 2005. The myth of dioxin. Editorial page. Akron Beacon Journal. December 26.