Heavy Metals

Heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury, and a few others, have merited the attention of occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, toxicologists, and epidemiologists since the early 1900s.

There have been long-standing concerns about the presence of these metals in the ambient air, e.g., from emissions from automobiles, and potential exposures to residents from contaminated soil and sediment.

Serious human health hazard concerns have also been raised in the workplace, e.g. lead poisoning, cobalitism, dermal and respiratory sensitization, etc.  Recently, there has been a lot of litigation regarding heavy metals in foods, especially related to California Proposition 65. 

Silber Sechseck Baustein Konzept 3

In the 2000s, cobalt, beryllium, and cadmium were of concern in the medical device industry. Over the last 20 years, lead has been a concern in various consumer products from Mexico, China, and other developing countries (cookware, handbags, toys, foods, and alcoholic beverages).

Over the years, our firm has probably conducted over 300 evaluations of scenarios involving these metals in virtually every media to which humans are exposed.  We have some of the most experienced staff when it comes to evaluating exposures to most litigated heavy metals — lead, and cadmium — for CA Prop 65.  At times, we have been named as experts to serve on blue-ribbon panels, science advisory boards, or as expert witnesses in litigation.  Dr. Paustenbach has testified in cases involving most of the above-mentioned metals.

Key Projects

  • 1995: Member of the five-person CDC/ATSDR expert panel that evaluated the Bioavailability of Mercury in Soils (August 28-29; Atlanta, GA).
  • Lead and arsenic in vitamin supplements. We were asked to evaluate whether relatively trace concentrations of both arsenic and lead, which were naturally occurring in some zeolites, in a vitamin supplement, posed an unacceptable risk to those taking this nutriceuticals.  FDA and the California Government were uncertain whether to request withdrawing them from the market (summer of 2015).
  • Arsenic in inexpensive California wines. In Feb/March 2015, Dennis was contacted by the Wine Institute to consider evaluating the presence of arsenic (and lead) in wine grown in historical crops.  The legal claims surrounded the fact that in many wines, the concentration of arsenic exceeds the drinking water guideline.  A couple of research papers were generated surrounding this risk-based question (spring of 2015).
  • Lead paint in Baltimore homes. We were asked to evaluate recent claims that the remediation of lead from homes in Baltimore had actually increased the blood lead concentrations in children living in those homes (spring 2014).
  • Evaluation of contaminated clothing manufactured in China. We evaluated the hazards associated with the presence of various “unapproved” dyes in clothing manufactured in China  In other related cases, we evaluated the presence of lead in handbags and other leather items (summer 2013).
  • Evaluated the alleged hazard of lead in Lake Merced (and the sources). Retained by Zurich Insurance to assess the overall risks to the environment and humans, as well as identify the source of the lead (fall 2011).
  • Evaluated the risk to children posed by lead in various consumer products produced in China. During 2007-2008, our staff evaluated the content and possible release of lead from plastics and other media which are used to make a number of consumer products in the United States. Based on these data, a health risk assessment was conducted and the results were compared to various regulatory and non-regulatory criteria.
  • Evaluation of potential sources of lead and data usability for source characterization in support of cost allocation litigation for railroad sites in Missouri. Chemical concentration data at these sites were evaluated to determine whether potential sources of lead could be identified and remediation costs could be allocated to several defendants (including a mining company) who transported lead using the railroad (summer 2006).
  • Assessment of lead and cadmium in talc and other baby products (California). In 2000-2002, conducted a risk assessment that evaluated the likelihood that trace amounts of lead and cadmium in talc and zinc oxide ointment in baby products might penetrate the skin and produce an absorbed dose in excess of the California Proposition 65 “safe harbor” concentration.
  • Assessment of lead in consumer products (California). In 2000-2001, conducted scientific evaluations and supplied expert reports for claims involving ingestion and dermal absorption of lead (at least 6 cases).  As a result of claims under California’s Proposition 65, a series of lawsuits were filed from 1996-2001 involving human exposure to lead.  The suits generally focused on ingestion and dermal absorption.  Our staff designed a number of studies to understand some of the various consumer products and the likelihood that enough lead could be absorbed to exceed the “safe harbor” standards. The media of interest included telephone cables, vacuum cleaner hoses, computer battery charger cables, and related materials.
  • Research of metals bioavailability (Louisiana). In the mid-1990s, conducted research of several issues pertaining to the production of a vitrified aggregate material from soils originally contaminated with lead. Provided research materials relevant to the critical issue of metals accumulation and the transport and fate and risk assessment considerations to identify safe uses of the aggregate.  The aggregate has been used in both concrete and asphalt.  Served as an expert witness in federal court to address the regulatory compliance issues with respect to toxicology and risk assessment.
  • Assessment of lead from a rotary kiln (Louisiana). In 1991, prepared human and ecological risk assessments for a former hazardous waste treatment facility.  The assessment included the evaluation of lead in site soils using the USEPA integrated exposure uptake/biokinetic (IEUBK) model. This assessment was a landmark risk assessment because it addressed the thorny issue of recycling so-called “low risk” combustion by-products.  The case was argued in federal court in Louisiana against the U.S. Department of Justice in about 1995.
  • Assessment of hazards posed by contaminated soil at a former battery recycling facility (New York and Pennsylvania). In 1992-1993, conducted an ecological and human health assessment of lead-contaminated soil at two former battery recycling centers. This site ultimately underwent partial (selective) remediation and was considered a model for remediation because of how the risk assessment directed the cleanup approach.
  • Environmental Sources of Blood Lead and Trends in Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Colorado. In the late 1980s, we developed a position paper on environmental sources of blood lead and trends in children’s blood lead levels which related to proposed remedial actions at various Superfund sites. Additionally, a statistical analysis of paired child blood lead and environmental lead data was developed to identify relationships that could be included in predictive models, such as the USEPA’s IEUBK Model.
  • Labeling of vitamins: After review of available information, we recommended to the client, and we reported this to FDA, that they needed to warn that a vitamin supplement containing zeolites contained concentrations of lead and cobalt that were too high to be given to children.  We advocated that the warning needed to identify the presence of certain metals.  This position was later embraced by the FDA and the product was no longer manufactured.
  • Attempted to Determine for Categorization of Cobalt as a Systemic Toxicant in EU: Investigated the basis for the categorization of cobalt under the new labeling scheme and submitted comments about the scientific merit of that pending decision (Spring of 2019)
  • The sensitization hazard posed by cobalt, chromium, and nickel released by hip implants. Was retained by a manufacturer to determine the likelihood that these metals, when released through normal wear, were likely to induce or elicit a sensitization response in patients. (spring of 2015).  (Kovochich, M., E.S. Fung, E. Donovan, K.M. Unice, D.J. Paustenbach, and B.L. Finley. 2017.  Characterization of wear debris from metal-on-metal hip implants during normal wear versus edge-loading conditions. J Biomed Mat Res B. Advanced online publication, May 8, 2017. doi. 10.1002/jbm.b.33902; Unice, K.M., A.D. Monnot, S.H. Gaffney, B.E. Tvermoes, K.A. Thuett, D.J. Paustenbach, and B.L. Finley. 2012. Inorganic cobalt supplementation. Prediction of cobalt levels in whole blood and urine using a biokinetic model.  Food Chem. Toxicol. 50.2456-2461.; Tvermoes, B.E., B.L. Finley, K.M. Unice, J.M. Otani, D.J. Paustenbach, and D.A. Galbraith. 2013.  Cobalt whole blood concentrations in healthy adult male volunteers following two-weeks of ingesting acobalt supplement. Food Chem Tox. 53.432-439.). 
  • Nanoparticles and hip implants. During 2012-2014, we conducted an evaluation of alleged health risks associated with the release of nanoparticles (and other wear debris) from cobalt-chromium containing metal on metal hip implants.  Several papers were published describing our work.  (Madl, A.K., M. Liong, M. Kovochich, B.L. Finley, D.J. Paustenbach, and G. Oberdorster. 2015. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part I: Physiochemical properties in patients and simulator studies.  Nanomed: Nanotech Biol Med. 11(5):1201-1215; Madl, A.K., M. Kovochich, M. Liong, B.L. Finley, D.J. Paustenbach, and G. Oberdorster. 2015. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part II: Importance of physiochemical properties and dose in animal and in vitro studies as a basis for risk assessment. Nanomed: Nanotech Biol Med. 11(5):1285-1298.).
  • Evaluation of the hazards associated with systemic exposure to cobalt. During 2012 and 2013, we conducted a series of volunteer studies where workers were exposed via ingestion to cobalt supplement. The objective was to evaluate claims of toxicity at certain blood concentrations associated with cobalt leaching from hip implants and any claims regarding adverse effects due to taking it as a vitamin supplement. The studies were published in a series of articles in 2013 and 2014.
  • Evaluation of the toxicity of cobalt. Beginning in July (2011) we began evaluating the potential toxicity of cobalt for a major pharmaceutical and medical device firm
  • Arsenic in various wines. It was reported in a number of national news stories that excessive amounts of arsenic were present in virtually all wines.  Several major lawsuits were filed.  We were asked to look into this matter.  At our expense, we conducted the most comprehensive research ever conducted on this topic which included speciation of the type of arsenic and the presence in a range of wine and red wines.  The results were published in two papers in 2016 (work conducted in 2015). (Monnot, A., B.E. Tvermoes, R. Gerads, H. Gurleyuk, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2016. Risks associated with arsenic exposure resulting from consumption of California wines sold in the United States. Food Chem. 211.107-113.; Paustenbach, D.J., A.L. Insley, J.R. Maskrey, J.L. Bare, K.M. Unice, V.B. Conrad, L. Iordanidis, D.W. Reynolds, K.D. DiNatale, and A.D. Monnot. 2016.  Analysis of total arsenic content in California wines and comparison to various health risk criteria. Am J Enol Viticult. 67(2).179-187.) (2015 and 2016)
  • Assessment of health hazards posed by CCA-treated wood (National). During 2001-2002, directed a team that evaluated the possible human health hazards posed by contact with arsenic, copper, and chromium present on the surface of treated wood.  The concern of regulatory agencies and society was the risk to children who played on decks and treated wood in playgrounds.  Work was presented to USEPA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) sampling and analysis plan (SAP).
  • Assessment of hazards to children from arsenic in playground soils (National). In 2001, retained by two national trade associations to evaluate the possible hazards posed by the leaching of arsenic into soils from timber treated with chromated copper arsenic (CCA). This analysis was the first major health risk assessment related to the national initiative to specifically focus on the possible hazards of certain contaminants and media to children.  At least one paper describing our work was published.
  • Assessment of cadmium-contaminated sediment on the Hudson River (Marathon Battery, New York). In the 1990s, conducted a preliminary ecological assessment of the potential hazards to aquatic and avian species due to cadmium in both surface and buried sediments.  Ultimately, the sediments at this site were remediated under Superfund.
  • Assessment of cadmium in sediments (New York). In 1994, evaluated the possible ecological and human health hazards posed by cadmium contamination of sediments in a bay. Ultimately, the so-called Marathon Battery site was among the first to undergo sediment remediation.
  • Evaluation of recent data on worker sensitization to beryllium. In 2005-2006, conducted an evaluation of the past five years of industrial hygiene and biomonitoring data (e.g., BLPT data) at a large manufacturing complex. The results were published in a peer-reviewed manuscript.
  • Assessment of occupational health hazards posed by airborne beryllium (Ohio and Arizona). Beginning in early 1999, designed a comprehensive program for characterizing the hazards posed by airborne and dermal contact with beryllium in the workplace.  Ultimately, was involved in numerous research efforts to understand the a) usefulness of beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BLPT) monitoring; b) importance of particle size and chemical form of the beryllium in determining the hazard; c) relationship between disease and the other routes of exposure to beryllium; and d) importance of establishing different dose-metrics.  Worked with the client and ACGIH to put together an international symposium on beryllium, held September, 1999 in Washington, DC.
  • Beryllium in workplace air: We recommended to a client that they needed to brief both NIOSH and OSHA that the different forms of beryllium had genuinely different hazard potential and toxicity.  We also recommended that they voluntarily adopt an internal occupational exposure limit that was 10-50 fold lower than the “then-current” PEL and that they should set 3-4 different OELs; depending on the form of beryllium.  (Kolanz, M.E., A.K. Madl, M.A. Kelsh, M.S. Kent, R.M. Kalmes, and D.J. Paustenbach. 2001. A comparison and critique of historical and current exposure assessment methods for beryllium: Implications for evaluating risk of chronic beryllium disease. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 16(5):593-614.; Paustenbach, D.J., A.K. Madl, and J. Greene. 2001. Identifying an appropriate occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium: Data gaps and current research initiatives. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 16(5):527-38)
  • Evaluated the legitimacy of claims that Coca-Cola was contaminated with elemental mercury. In November 2009, our staff was contacted by the client that there were claims that persons had been poisoned in Beijing as a result of drinking Sprite from their local manufacturing facility. Previously, our staff had experience in evaluating similar “canning lines” and moved a small team to Beijing to conduct a hazard evaluation of the manufacturing process.  Our staff focused on the possible presence of elemental mercury and were able to definitively show that no mercury was ever-present in that facility.  Regulatory authorities in China read our analysis and agreed.
  • Community Mercury Exposure Near a Gold Mine in Peru. Around 2006, we were retained to evaluate an incident that occurred in Peru involving neighborhood exposure to elemental mercury which was associated with a gold mine.  Cumulative and acute exposures to elemental mercury were assessed for over 40 individuals based on written summaries of their exposure history.  Microenvironments included home (near and away from spilt mercury), outside playing with mercury, outside walking near mercury, and ambient air exposure.  This was one of the first major “toxics” cases against a firm in the US who was performing work in a foreign country.  The difficult part of the analysis was later published in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • Analysis of maximum daily load (TMDL) of mercury in Savannah River (Georgia). In 2000, worked with Savannah River Nuclear Site and regulatory agencies to develop a program to assess the mercury burdens to the river and the need to comply with new TMDL guidelines.
  • Mercury in gas line pressure regulators (Michigan and Illinois). In the summer of 2000, developed a field program to measure airborne mercury in the 0.01 to 5.0 µg/m3 range and to evaluate the possible public health significance (assuming exposure had occurred for many years).  It had been reported that, in homes built between 1935-1975, gas pressure regulators often contained elemental mercury (1-3 teaspoons each).  Apparently, during installation and removal (which occurred to a large extent over the past 25 years) some small spills occurred. Managed the sampling of over 1000 homes and analyzed the data.
  • Assessment of mercury in fish (Puerto Rico). In 1993, developed a quantitative health risk assessment of inorganic and methyl mercury exposures in a fishing village in Puerto Rico (Superfund site, USEPA Region II).  Analyses included pharmacokinetic modeling of chemical uptake into beef and dairy cows and edible marine organisms, and subsequent evaluation of maternal body burden and breast-milk levels in exposed human populations. Monte Carlo analysis of fish tissue data was used to evaluate human exposure.
  • Assessment of mercury in soil (Puerto Rico). In 1992, evaluated the acceptability of post-remedial levels of mercury in soil at a site in Puerto Rico.

Publications

  • Keenan, J.J., M.H. Le, D.J. Paustenbach, and S.H. Gaffney. 2010. Lead testing wipes contain measurable background levels of lead. Bull Env Contam Toxicol. 84(3):269-273.
  • Fung, E.S., A. Monnot, M. Kovochich, K.M. Unice, B.E. Tvermoes, D. Galbraith, B.L. Finley, and J. Paustenbach. 2018. Characteristics of cobalt-related cardiomyopathy in metal hip implant patients: An evaluation of 15 published reports. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 18(3):206-220. doi: 10.1007/s12012-017-9433-z.
  • Kerger, B.D., R. Gerads, H. Gurleyuk, A. Urban, and J. Paustenbach. 2015. Total cobalt determination in human blood and synovial fluid using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Method validation and evaluation of performance variable affecting metal hip implant patient samples. Tox Env Chem. 97(9):1145-1163.
  • Madl, A.K., M. Liong, M. Kovochich, B.L. Finley, J. Paustenbach, and G. Oberdorster. 2015. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part I: Physiochemical properties in patient and simulator studies. Nanomedicine. 11(5):1201-1215.
  • Madl, A.K., M. Kovochich, M. Liong, B.L. Finley, J. Paustenbach, and G. Oberdorster. 2015. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part II: Importance of physiochemical properties and dose in animal and in vitro studies as a basis for risk assessment. Nanomedicine. 11(5):1285-1298.
  • Tvermoes, B.E., J. Paustenbach, B.D. Kerger, B.L. Finley, and K.M. Unice. 2015. Review of cobalt toxicokinetics following oral dosing: Implications for health risk assessments and metal-on-metal hip implant patients. Crit Rev Toxicol. 45(5):367-87
  • Unice, K.M., B.D. Kerger, J. Paustenbach, B.L. Finley, and B.E. Tvermoes. 2014. Refined biokinetic model for humans exposure to cobalt dietary supplements and other sources of systemic cobalt exposure. Chem-Biol Interact. 216:53-74.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., D.A. Galbraith, and B.L. Finley. 2014. Interpreting cobalt blood concentrations in hip implant patients. Clin Toxicol. 52(2):98-112.
  • Finley, B.L, K.M. Unice, B.D. Kerger, J.M. Otani, J. Paustenbach, D.A. Galbraith, and B.E. Tvermoes. 2013. 31-day study of cobalt (II) chloride ingestion in humans: Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects. J Tox Env Health A. 76:1210-1224.
  • Kerger, B.D., R. Gerads, H. Gurleyuk, K.A. Thuett, B.L. Finley, and J. Paustenbach. 2013. Cobalt speciation assay for human serum, part I. Method for measuring large and small molecular cobalt and protein-binding capacity using size exclusion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy detection. Toxicol Environ Chem. 95(4):687-708.
  • Kerger, B.D., B.E. Tvermoes, K.M. Unice, B.L. Finley, J. Paustenbach, and D.A. Galbraith. 2013. Cobalt speciation assay for human serum, part II. Method validation in a study of human volunteers ingesting cobalt (II) chloride dietary supplement for 90 days. Toxicol Environ Chem. 95(4):709-718.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., B.E. Tvermoes, K.M. Unice, B.L. Finley, and B.D. Kerger. 2013. A review of the health hazards posed by cobalt. Crit Rev Tox. 43(4):316-362.
  • Tvermoes, B.E., B.L. Finley, K.M. Unice, J.M. Otani, J. Paustenbach, and D.A. Galbraith. 2013. Cobalt whole blood concentrations in healthy adult male volunteers following two-weeks of ingesting a cobalt supplement. Food Chem Tox. 53:432-439.
  • Finley, B.L, A.D. Monnot, S.H. Gaffney, and J. Paustenbach. 2012. Dose-response relationships for blood cobalt concentrations and health effects: A review of the literature and application of a biokinetic model. J Tox Env Health B. 15(8):493-523.
  • Finley, B.L., A.D. Monnot, J. Paustenbach, and S.H. Gaffney. 2012. Derivation of a chronic reference dose for cobalt. Reg Tox Pharm. 64:491-503.
  • Unice, K.M., A.D. Monnot, S.H. Gaffney, B.E. Tvermoes, K.A. Thuett, J. Paustenbach, and B.L. Finley. 2012. Inorganic cobalt supplementation: Prediction of cobalt levels in whole blood and urine using a biokinetic model. Food Chem Toxicol. 50(7):2456-2461.
  • Monnot, A., B.E. Tvermoes, R. Gerads, H. Gurleyuk, and J. Paustenbach. 2016. Risks associated with arsenic exposure resulting from consumption of California wines sold in the United States. Food Chem. 211:107-113.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., A.L. Insley, J.R. Maskrey, J.L. Bare, K.M. Unice, V.B. Conrad, L. Iordanidis, D.W. Reynolds, K.D. DiNatale, and A.D. Monnot. 2016. Analysis of total arsenic content in California wines and comparison to various health risk criteria. Am J Enol Viticult. 67(2):179-187.
  • McAtee, B.L., E.P. Donovan, S.H. Gaffney, W. Frede, J.S. Knutsen, and J. Paustenbach 2009. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000). Ann Occup Hyg. 53(4):373-82.
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Letters-to-the-Editor and Editorials

  • Paustenbach, D., D. Galbraith, and B. Finley. 2014. Letter-to-the-editor: Authors’ response to letters-to-the-editor re: Interpreting cobalt blood concentrations in hip implant patients. Clin Toxicol. 52(5):569-570.

 

Presentations

  • 2009 (March). Lead testing wipes contain measurable background levels of lead. Presented at the 48th Annual Society of Toxicology’s Meeting and ToxExpo, March 15-19, 2009. Baltimore, MD.
  • 2017 (March). Characteristics of Cobalt Related Cardiomyopathy in Metal Hip Implant Patients.  Abstract # 2142.  Poster Presentation at Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, March 12-16, 2017, Baltimore, MD.
  • 2014 (March). Nanoparticles from the Wear of Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants: Physicochemical and Dose Analysis of Patient and Toxicology Studies.  Presented at Society of Toxicology 53rd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, Phoenix, AZ; March 23-27, 2014. Abstract Number: 603j.
  • 2013 (March). Cobalt Whole Blood Concentrations in Healthy Adult Volunteers Following Two-Weeks of Ingesting a Cobalt Supplement.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas, March 12, 2013.  Safety Assessment: Nonpharmaceuticals; 1:00 P.M. to 4:30 P.M.; Exhibit Halls C&D.  Abstract number 1555/Poster Board 616.
  • 2013 (March). Method: Measuring Protein-Bound and Free Cobalt(II) in Human Serum – Size Exclusion Liquid Chromatography with ICP-MS.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas.  March 12, 2013.  Metals I; 9:00 A.M. to 12:30 P.M.; Exhibit Halls C&D.  Abstract number 1168/Poster Board 620.
  • 2013 (March). Dose-response relationships for blood cobalt concentrations and associated health effects. Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 12, 2013.  Metals II; 1:00 P.M. to 4:30 P.M.; Exhibit Halls C&D.  Abstract number 1514/Poster Board 573.
  • 2013 (March). Cobalt blood concentrations and health effects in adult volunteers during a 90-day cobalt supplement ingestion study.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 14, 2013. Late-Breaking Abstract Session; 8:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M.; Exhibit Hall A.  Abstract number 2556/Poster Board 144.
  • 2013 (March). Effects of Cobalt Dietary Supplementation on Cobalt Body Burden, Steady-State Levels and Selected Biochemical Parameters.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 14, 2013. Late-Breaking Abstract Session; 8:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M.:  Exhibit Hall A.  Abstract number 2555/Poster Board 143.
  • 2012 (December). Derivation of a Chronic Oral Reference Dose for Cobalt.  Presented at the 2012 Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting; December 9-12, 2012; San Francisco, CA.
  • 2012 (December). Investigation of Cobalt Steady-State Levels in Five Healthy Adult Volunteers Taking 14-Days of a Cobalt Supplement.  Presented at the 2012 Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting; December 9-12, 2012; San Francisco, CA.
  • Keenan, J., M.H. Le, D.J. Paustenbach, and S.H. Gaffney. Lead Testing Wipes Contain Measurable Background Levels of Lead. Presented at the 48th Annual Society of Toxicology’s Meeting and ToxExpo, March 15-19, 2009. Abstract #1477. Baltimore, MD.
  • 2016 (March). Risks Associated with Arsenic Exposure Resulting from the Consumption of California Wines Sold in the United States.  Poster Presentation at Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting. Abstract #1264. March 13-17, 2016. New Orleans, LA.
  • 2011 (March). An assessment of the bioavailability of cadmium in thin-film PV modules.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology (SOT) Annual Meeting, Thursday, March 10, 2011.  8:30 AM – 12:00 PM.  Abstract #2909, Poster Board #155.  Exhibit Hall, Convention Center.  Washington, D.C.  (Grace Period Abstracts – Session IV)
  • 2008 (June).  Analysis of historical air monitoring data for copper-beryllium at a manufacturing plant (1964-2000).  Presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference & Exposition (AIHce), May 31-June 5, 2008. Minneapolis, MN.
  • 2006 (September).  Assessment of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test: Lessons learned from a long-term occupational surveillance program. Presented at the International Conference on Environmental Epidemiology and Exposure (ISEE/ISEA), September 5-6, 2006. Paris, France.
  • 2006 (May).  Assessment of exposure-response patterns for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference & Expo (AIHce), May 13-18, 2006. Chicago, IL.
  • 2006 (March).  Beryllium exposure and the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. Presentation at the Society of Toxicology’s 45th Annual Meeting, March 5-9, 2006. San Diego, CA.
  • 2005 (November).  Exposure and the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. Annual International Society of Exposure Analysis Conference (ISEA), October 30-November 3, 2005. Tucson, AZ.
  • 2000 (May).  Alveolar-deposited airborne particles of beryllium as a predictor of the prevalence of disease in a beryllium processing facility. Platform presentation at the American Industrial Health Conference & Exposition (with M. Kent, T. Robins, A.K. Madl, and M. Goodman), May 22-26, 2000, Orlando, FL.
  • 2000 (May).  Biomonitoring for beryllium in workers of a beryllium processing facility. Platform presentation at the American Industrial Health Conference & Exposition (with Y. Lowney, D. Deubner, S.M. Hays, P. Chapman, B. Kerger, and W. Shields), May 22-26, 2000, Orlando, FL.
  • 2000 (May).  Chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization at a beryllium mine and extraction facility. Platform presentation at the American Industrial Health Conference & Exposition (with M. Kelsh, D. Deubner, L. Maier, M Kent, B. Smith, P. Chapman, K. Zhao, and M. Kolanz), May 22-26, 2000, Orlando, FL.
  • 2000 (May).  The role of extrapulmonary exposure pathways in the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. Platform presentation at the American Industrial Health Conference & Exposition (with D. Deubner, M. Kelsh, Y. Lowney), May 22-26, 2000, Orlando, FL.
  • 2000 (March).  Consideration of alternate exposure pathways in the possible relation to prevalence of chronic beryllium disease. Presentation at the Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting (with D. Deubner, M. Kelsh, Y. Lowney, and M. Kolanz), March 19-23, 2000, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 1999 (September).  Joint ACGIH and Brush Wellman Symposia on “Understanding the Risks and Research Involving Beryllium.” Washington, DC.
  • 2003 (December).  Residential exposures to elemental mercury due to releases from the removal of gas pressure regulators (with P. Williams, G. Brorby and P. Sheehan). Presentation at the Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, December 7-10, 2003. Baltimore, MD.
  • 2003 (September).  Elemental mercury releases associated with the removal of gas pressure regulators in homes (with P. Williams, G. Brorby, and P. Sheehan). Presentation at the International Society of Exposure Analysis Annual Conference, September 21-25, 2003.  Stresa, Italy.
  • 2002 (June).  Evaluation of elemental mercury releases associated with the removal of gas pressure regulators in homes. (with Williams, P.R.D., P. Sheehan, and G. Brorby) American Industrial Hygiene Association Conference & Expo, June 3-6, 2002. San Diego, CA.
  • 2002 (March).  Is mercury in urine indicative of exposure to low levels of mercury vapor? (with J.S. Tsuji, P. Williams, M. Edwards and K.P. Avadhanam). 41st Annual Meeting of Society of Toxicology, March 17-21, 2002. Nashville, TN.
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Abstracts

  • Fung, E.S., A.D. Monnot, B.E. Tvermoes, K.M. Unice, M. Kovochich, D.A. Galbraith, B.L. Finley and J. Paustenbach. 2017.  Characteristics of Cobalt Related Cardiomyopathy in Metal Hip Implant Patients.  Abstract #2142.  Poster Presentation at Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting. March 12-16, 2017, Baltimore, MD.
  • Liong, M., M. Kovochich, B.L. Finley, J. Paustenbach, and A.K. Madl. 2014.  Nanoparticles from the Wear of Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants: Physicochemical and Dose Analysis of Patient and Toxicology Studies.  Poster presented at Society of Toxicology (SOT) 53rd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo; Abstract Number 603j/Poster Board 472; Phoenix, AZ; March 23-27, 2014.
  • Finley, B.L., B.E. Tvermoes, K.M. Unice, J.M. Otani, J. Paustenbach and D.A. Galbraith. 2013.  Cobalt Whole Blood Concentrations in Healthy Adult Volunteers Following Two-Weeks of Ingesting a Cobalt Supplement.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 12, 2013.  Safety Assessment: Nonpharmaceuticals; 1:00 P.M. to 4:30 P.M.; Exhibit Halls C&D.  Abstract number 1555/Poster Board 616.
  • Kerger, B.D., R. Gerads, B.L. Finley and J. Paustenbach, DJ. 2013. Method: Measuring Protein-Bound and Free Cobalt(II) in Human Serum – Size Exclusion Liquid Chromatography with ICP-MS.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas.  March 12, 2013.  Metals I; 9:00 A.M. to 12:30 P.M.; Exhibit Halls C&D.  Abstract number 1168/Poster Board 620.
  • Monnot, A.D., S.H. Gaffney, J. Paustenbach, and B.L. Finley. Dose-response relationships for blood cobalt concentrations and associated health effects. Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 12, 2013.  Metals II; 1:00 P.M. to 4:30 P.M.; Exhibit Halls C&D.  Abstract number 1514/Poster Board 573.
  • Paustenbach, D.J., B.E. Tvermoes, J.M. Otani, K.M. Unice, B.L. Finley, and D.A. Galbraith. 2013. Cobalt blood concentrations and health effects in adult volunteers during a 90 day cobalt supplement ingestion study.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 14, 2013. Late-Breaking Abstract Session; 8:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M.; Exhibit Hall A.  Abstract number 2556/Poster Board 144.
  • Tvermoes, B.E., B.L. Finley, J.M. Otani, K.M. Unice, J. Paustenbach and D.A. Galbraith. 2013. Effects of Cobalt Dietary Supplementation on Cobalt Body Burden, Steady-State Levels and Selected Biochemical Parameters.  Presented at the Society of Toxicology’s (SOT) 52nd Annual Meeting, March 10-14, 2013 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. March 14, 2013. Late-Breaking Abstract Session; 8:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M.:  Exhibit Hall A.  Abstract number 2555/Poster Board 143.
  • Tvermoes, B.E., J. Otani, K.M. Unice, B.L. Finley, J. Paustenbach, D.A. Galbraith. Investigation of Cobalt Steady-State Levels in Five Healthy Adult Volunteers Taking 14-Days of a Cobalt Supplement.  Presented at the 2012 Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting; December 9-12, 2012; San Francisco, CA.
  • Monnot, A.D., S.H. Gaffney, J. Paustenbach, and B.L. Finley. Derivation of a Chronic Oral Reference Dose for Cobalt.  Presented at the 2012 Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting; December 9-12, 2012; San Francisco, CA.
  • Monnot, A.D., B.E. Tvermoes, R. Gerads, H. Gürleyükc and J. Paustenbach. 2016.  Risks associated with arsenic exposure resulting from the consumption of California wines sold in the United States.  Abstract #1264.  Poster Presentation at Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, March 13-17, 201, New Orleans, LA
  • Tvermoes, B., Anderle de Sylor, M., Sahmel, J., Cyrs, W. and J. Paustenbach. An assessment of the bioavailability of cadmium in thin-film PV modules. Society of Toxicology (SOT) Annual Meeting, Thursday March 10, 2011.  Abstract #2909, Poster Board #155.  Exhibit Hall, Convention Center.  Washington, D.C.  (Grace Period Abstracts – Session IV)
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