What we do


Epidemiology is the study of diseases in populations of humans or other animals. It is considered the “gold standard” for understanding disease causation. Our firm has extensive experience conducting these studies, both in the workplace and community. They are an ideal component of any risk assessment and are hugely valuable for informing all stakeholders.

Adverse health effects in occupational and environmental epidemiology can include the following: cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, immunological, and hematological disease as well as reproductive and developmental effects.



Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. Our firm specializes in understanding the hazards of chemicals found in soil, air, sediment, foods, and consumer products. We have a team of consultants that have conducted more risk assessments than anyone else in the business.


Ecological risk assessments are performed to evaluate whether particular environmental conditions (e.g., chemical contamination in air, soil, surface water, sediment, or biota; changes in climate; or the introduction of invasive species) pose a risk to ecological resources. These types of studies are essential to understanding the possible hazards posed by chemicals in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

Exposure Assessment and Dose Reconstruction

Our team members pioneered the methodology for conducting exposure assessments and dose reconstructions. We have published nearly 30 papers on this topic involving both the workplace and community exposures.

Exposure assessment involves the collection of data that describes the intake of chemicals via inhalation, dermal absorption, and ingestion. These data are then used to characterize the total dose due to all chemicals with a consideration of mixture effects.

Dose reconstruction attempts to characterize the lifetime intake of one or more chemicals using a combination of simulation data and historical exposure data. These are used to characterize exposures that occurred in the past from when reasonable quality contemporaneous exposure data are not available.

Health and Environmental Risk Assessment

Health risk assessment is a systematic approach for characterizing human exposures in and out of the workplace. It has been relied upon for over 40 years as the basis of decision making for nearly all chemicals. Risk assessments can be used in a variety of contexts, including evaluating exposure to chemicals associated with consumer products, occupational settings, or specific contaminated sites. These assessments are the foundation for decision-making in the corporate setting, regulatory rule-making, and toxic-tort litigation.


Industrial Hygiene and Exposure Science

Industrial hygiene is the anticipation, recognition, and control of chemical hazards in the workplace. Our team has conducted over 500 industrial hygiene surveys. We have written nearly 50 published papers on this topic.

Consumer Product Safety Assessment

Each year, greater emphasis is placed on chemicals to which we are exposed daily in cosmetics, toys, paints, agricultural products, building materials, and other related media. Our team has evaluated dozens of these exposure scenarios and welcome the opportunity to examine novel and mainstream chemicals used in commerce.